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Mol Biol Evol. 2015 Sep;32(9):2351-66. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msv116. Epub 2015 May 14.

Genome-Wide Dosage-Dependent and -Independent Regulation Contributes to Gene Expression and Evolutionary Novelty in Plant Polyploids.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin.
2
Department of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China zjchen@austin.utexas.edu.

Abstract

Polyploidy provides evolutionary and morphological novelties in many plants and some animals. However, the role of genome dosage and composition in gene expression changes remains poorly understood. Here, we generated a series of resynthesized Arabidopsis tetraploids that contain 0-4 copies of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa genomes and investigated ploidy and hybridity effects on gene expression. Allelic expression can be defined as dosage dependent (expression levels correlate with genome dosages) or otherwise as dosage independent. Here, we show that many dosage-dependent genes contribute to cell cycle, photosynthesis, and metabolism, whereas dosage-independent genes are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Interestingly, dosage-dependent genes tend to be preserved in ancient biochemical pathways present in both plant and nonplant species, whereas many dosage-independent genes belong to plant-specific pathways. This is confirmed by an independent analysis using Arabidopsis phylostratigraphic map. For A. thaliana loci, the dosage-dependent alleles are devoid of TEs and tend to correlate with H3K9ac, H3K4me3, and CG methylation, whereas the majority of dosage-independent alleles are enriched with TEs and correspond to H3K27me1, H3K27me3, and CHG (H = A, T, or C) methylation. Furthermore, there is a parent-of-origin effect on nonadditively expressed genes in the reciprocal allotetraploids especially when A. arenosa is used as the pollen donor, leading to metabolic and morphological changes. Thus, ploidy, epigenetic modifications, and cytoplasmic-nuclear interactions shape gene expression diversity in polyploids. Dosage-dependent expression can maintain growth and developmental stability, whereas dosage-independent expression can facilitate functional divergence between homeologs (subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization) during polyploid evolution.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis.; epigenetics; evolution; gene expression; polyploidy

PMID:
25976351
PMCID:
PMC6281156
DOI:
10.1093/molbev/msv116
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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