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Arch Toxicol. 2016 Apr;90(4):927-36. doi: 10.1007/s00204-015-1527-4. Epub 2015 May 16.

Unsaturated compounds induce up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells in the in vitro sensitization assay LCSA.

Author information

1
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.
2
Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.
3
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. dr.max.schreiner@gmail.com.
4
Department of Internal Medicine (Abt. I), Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Berlin, Scharnhorststraße 13, 10115, Berlin, Germany. dr.max.schreiner@gmail.com.

Abstract

Unsaturated compounds are known to cause false-positive reactions in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not in the guinea pig maximization test. We have tested a panel of substances (succinic acid, undecylenic acid, 1-octyn-3-ol, fumaric acid, maleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, squalene, and arachidonic acid) in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA) to evaluate whether unspecific activation of dendritic cells is a confounder for sensitization testing in vitro. Eight out of 10 tested substances caused significant up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells cocultured with keratinocytes and would have been classified as sensitizers; only succinic acid was tested negative, and squalene had to be excluded from data analysis due to poor solubility in cell culture medium. Based on human data, only undecylenic acid can be considered a true sensitizer. The true sensitizing potential of 1-octyn-3-ol is uncertain. Fumaric acid and its isomer maleic acid are not known as sensitizers, but their esters are contact allergens. A group of 18- to 20-carbon chain unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid) elicited the strongest reaction in vitro. This is possibly due to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators in the cell culture causing nonspecific activation of dendritic cells. In conclusion, both the LLNA and the LCSA seem to provide false-positive results for unsaturated fatty acids. The inclusion of T cells in dendritic cell-based in vitro sensitization assays may help to eliminate false-positive results due to nonspecific dendritic cell activation. This would lead to more accurate prediction of sensitizers, which is paramount for consumer health protection and occupational safety.

KEYWORDS:

Coculture; Dendritic cells; Keratinocytes; Regulative toxicology; Sensitization assay

PMID:
25975990
DOI:
10.1007/s00204-015-1527-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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