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Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Oct;66(4):602-12. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.02.338. Epub 2015 May 11.

A Meta-analysis of the Association of Estimated GFR, Albuminuria, Diabetes Mellitus, and Hypertension With Acute Kidney Injury.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
2
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.
3
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The George Institute for Global Health, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
4
Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
5
Nephrology Department, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA.
6
University College London, London, United Kingdom.
7
University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
8
Division of Nephrology at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA.
9
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). Whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) remain risk factors for AKI in the presence and absence of these conditions is uncertain.

STUDY DESIGN:

Meta-analysis of cohort studies.

SETTING & POPULATION:

8 general-population (1,285,045 participants) and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; 79,519 participants) cohorts.

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES:

Cohorts participating in the CKD Prognosis Consortium.

PREDICTORS:

Diabetes and hypertension status, eGFR by the 2009 CKD Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation, urine ACR, and interactions.

OUTCOME:

Hospitalization with AKI, using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs of AKI and random-effects meta-analysis to pool results.

RESULTS:

During a mean follow-up of 4 years, there were 16,480 episodes of AKI in the general-population and 2,087 episodes in the CKD cohorts. Low eGFRs and high ACRs were associated with higher risks of AKI in individuals with or without diabetes and with or without hypertension. When compared to a common reference of eGFR of 80mL/min/1.73m(2) in nondiabetic patients, HRs for AKI were generally higher in diabetic patients at any level of eGFR. The same was true for diabetic patients at all levels of ACR compared with nondiabetic patients. The risk gradient for AKI with lower eGFRs was greater in those without diabetes than with diabetes, but similar with higher ACRs in those without versus with diabetes. Those with hypertension had a higher risk of AKI at eGFRs>60mL/min/1.73m(2) than those without hypertension. However, risk gradients for AKI with both lower eGFRs and higher ACRs were greater for those without than with hypertension.

LIMITATIONS:

AKI identified by diagnostic code.

CONCLUSIONS:

Lower eGFRs and higher ACRs are associated with higher risks of AKI among individuals with or without either diabetes or hypertension.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium; Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); acute kidney injury (AKI); acute renal failure (ARF); albumin-creatine ratio (ACR); albuminuria; diabetes; hypertension; meta-analysis; renal function

PMID:
25975964
PMCID:
PMC4594211
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.02.338
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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