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Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2015 Jun;16(6):28. doi: 10.1007/s11864-015-0344-6.

The role of infectious agents, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy in the treatment of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas.

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Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, PO Box 800716, Charlottesville, VA, 22908-0716, USA.


There is strong evidence to corroborate the association with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) to gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (ENMZL) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to splenic/nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Koch's postulates generally hold for these two associations and eradication of the infectious agent is well supported. Hp eradication (HPE) is recommended as front-line therapy for early stage gastric ENMZL regardless of Hp status. Complete response (CR) rate for Hp-negative patients is not as high as for Hp-positive patients; however, the benign nature of HPE and high rates of salvage allow this strategy to be safe while sparing some Hp-negative patients from systemic therapy or radiation. Similarly for HCV-seropositive patients, treatment with antivirals should be strongly considered as first-line for those who do not require immediate cytoreductive therapy or at some point even after completing chemoimmunotherapy. The controversy regarding the role for antibiotics is greatest for primary ocular adnexal lymphoma (POAL). Considering the low incidence of Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) infection with OAL and the challenges to reliably identifying Cp, we typically do not consider doxycycline in POAL treatment. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) remains the treatment of choice for most with unilateral POAL. However, if reliable detection of Cp is available and Cp is identified, patients with unilateral low tumor stage POAL who do not require immediate radiotherapy could be considered for doxycycline as front-line treatment. Other infectious associations to indolent lymphomas have been made, including Borrelia borgdorferi (Bb) in cutaneous lymphoma and Campylobacter in immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID), but these associations are not as strong and primary treatment targeting the infectious agents is not recommended.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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