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Placenta. 2015 Jul;36(7):709-15. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2015.04.006. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

Inflammation in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address: priyadarshini.pantham@ucdenver.edu.
2
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The prevalence of maternal obesity is rising rapidly worldwide and constitutes a major obstetric problem, increasing mortality and morbidity in both mother and offspring. Obese women are predisposed to pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and children of obese mothers are more likely to develop cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Maternal obesity and GDM may be associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation termed "metainflammation", as opposed to an acute inflammatory response. This inflammatory environment may be one mechanism by which offspring of obese women are programmed to develop adult disorders.

METHODS:

Herein we review the evidence that maternal obesity and GDM are associated with changes in the maternal, fetal and placental inflammatory profile.

RESULTS:

Maternal inflammation in obesity and GDM may not always be associated with fetal inflammation.

CONCLUSION:

We propose that the placenta 'senses' and adapts to the maternal inflammatory environment, and plays a central role as both a target and producer of inflammatory mediators. In this manner, maternal obesity and GDM may indirectly program the fetus for later disease by influencing placental function.

KEYWORDS:

Cytokines; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Metainflammation; Obesity; Placenta

PMID:
25972077
PMCID:
PMC4466145
DOI:
10.1016/j.placenta.2015.04.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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