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Indian J Psychol Med. 2015 Apr-Jun;37(2):159-64. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.155614.

Relationship of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder with major depression: relevance to clinical practice.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector - 12, Chandigarh, India.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
4
Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, India.
5
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and depressive disorder are fairly common; symptoms do overlap, often under-identified and under-emphasized, particularly in rural India.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to assess the occurrence of PMS and PMDD in a sample of students and staff of a nursing college and to find their correlation with depression.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A prospective cohort study; Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural India (Wardha, Maharashtra); 118 female nursing students or staff aged between 18 and 40 years, who were likely to stay within the institution for the study period. The participants were rated on Penn daily symptom report prospectively for a period of 3-month. Those who scored positive were applied diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4(th) edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for PMDD; and were applied primary care evaluation of mental disorders depression screening followed by DSM-IV TR criteria for depression. Severity of depression was measured using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

RESULTS:

Main outcome measures were frequency and severity of depression in individuals with PMS and PMDD and their clinical and sociodemographic correlation. The age range of the sample was 18-37 years. Some PMS symptoms were observed in 67%; diagnosis of PMDD in 10%; depressive symptoms in 28% of the sample. 46.4% of those with depressive symptoms had major depression. The diagnosis of major depression was significantly associated with the severity of PMS symptoms as well as the presence of PMDD.

CONCLUSION:

Premenstrual syndrome is present in a substantial proportion of young females. Concurrent depression is increased by the severity of PMS symptoms and the presence of PMDD. Gynecologist needs to screen such subjects for depression and refer to mental-health professional early, in routine clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; India; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; premenstrual syndrome

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