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Environ Pollut. 2015 Sep;204:173-80. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.04.020. Epub 2015 May 14.

The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area.

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School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Environmental and Occupational Health Science Program, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
Department of Irrigation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:


Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ≤10 μm, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area.


Air pollution; Bioaerosols; Fungal spores; Geographic information system (GIS); Land use regression (LUR)

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