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BMC Womens Health. 2015 May 13;15:42. doi: 10.1186/s12905-015-0197-y.

Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Wondem_32@yahoo.com.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. yimermulat@gmail.com.
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Yohabt22@gmail.com.
4
Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Bayeabera15@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital.

METHODS:

A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher's exact test as appropriate.

RESULTS:

A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 - 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis (P < 0.05). E.coli, Pseudomonas spp. and S.aureus were frequently isolated. Norfloxacin (75.6 %), ciprofloxacin (79.6 %) and gentamicin (77.6 %) revealed high level of sensitivity whereas high resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin (82.2 %), tetracycline (63.3 %) and cotrimoxazole (62.2 %).

CONCLUSIONS:

Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are a common problem in women of reproductive age. Therefore, screening of vaginal infections in women of reproductive age should be implemented. Moreover, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and gentamicin are the recommended drugs for empiric therapy and prophylaxis as needed.

PMID:
25968607
PMCID:
PMC4438529
DOI:
10.1186/s12905-015-0197-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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