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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2015 Apr;31:50-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2015.04.001. Epub 2015 May 16.

Balancing up and downregulation of the C. elegans X chromosomes.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, USA.
2
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, USA. Electronic address: gyorgyi@umich.edu.

Abstract

In Caenorhabditis elegans, males have one X chromosome and hermaphrodites have two. Emerging evidence indicates that the male X is transcriptionally more active than autosomes to balance the single X to two sets of autosomes. Because upregulation is not limited to males, hermaphrodites need to strike back and downregulate expression from the two X chromosomes to balance gene expression in their genome. Hermaphrodite-specific downregulation involves binding of the dosage compensation complex to both Xs. Advances in recent years revealed that the action of the dosage compensation complex results in compaction of the X chromosomes, changes in the distribution of histone modifications, and ultimately limiting RNA Polymerase II loading to achieve chromosome-wide gene repression.

PMID:
25966908
PMCID:
PMC4470837
DOI:
10.1016/j.gde.2015.04.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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