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PLoS One. 2015 May 11;10(5):e0124351. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124351. eCollection 2015.

Relationships between Diet, Alcohol Preference, and Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes among Americans.

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Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.
Agribusiness Department, College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California, United States of America.
Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America; United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.


Although excessive alcohol consumption is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality, many studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption to improved cardiovascular health and a lower risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Self-reported alcohol and diet data used to generate these results suffer from measurement error due to recall bias. We estimate the effects of diet, alcohol, and lifestyle choices on the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease and T2D among U.S. adults using a nationally representative cohort of households with scanner data representing their food-at-home, alcohol, and tobacco purchases from 2007-2010, and self-reported health surveys for the same study participants from 2010-2012. Multivariate regression models were used to identify significant associations among purchase data and lifestyle/demographic factors with disease prevalence in 2010, and with incidence of new disease from 2011-2012. After controlling for important confounders, respondents who purchased moderate levels of wine were 25% less likely than non-drinkers to report heart disease in 2010. However, no alcohol-related expenditure variables significantly affected the likelihood of reporting incident heart disease from 2011-2012. In contrast, many types of alcohol-related purchases were associated with a lower prevalence of T2D, and respondents who purchased the greatest volumes of wine or beer--but not liquor--were less likely to report being diagnosed with T2D in 2011-2012 than non-drinkers.

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