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Trends Neurosci. 2015 Jun;38(6):345-52. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2015.04.002. Epub 2015 May 7.

NOW vs LATER brain circuits: implications for obesity and addiction.

Author information

1
National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address: nvolkow@nida.nih.gov.
2
National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Abstract

Balancing behaviors that provide a reward NOW versus behaviors that provide an advantage LATER is critical for survival. We propose a model in which dopamine (DA) can favor NOW processes through phasic signaling in reward circuits or LATER processes through tonic signaling in control circuits. At the same time, through its modulation of the orbitofrontal cortex, which processes salience attribution, DA also enables shifting from NOW to LATER, while its modulation of the insula, which processes interoceptive information, influences the probability of selecting NOW vs LATER actions on the basis of an individual's physiological state. Disruptions along these circuits contribute to diverse pathologies, including obesity and addiction.

KEYWORDS:

delay discounting; dopamine; intertemporal trade-off; striatum

PMID:
25959611
DOI:
10.1016/j.tins.2015.04.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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