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Gastroenterology. 2015 Aug;149(2):302-17.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.04.053. Epub 2015 May 7.

Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

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Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Barrett's Esophagus Program, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:
Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.


Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rapidly increasing in incidence in Western cultures. Barrett's esophagus is the presumed precursor lesion for this cancer. Several other risk factors for this cancer have been described, including chronic heartburn, tobacco use, white race, and obesity. Despite these known associations, most patients with EAC present with symptoms of dysphagia from late-stage tumors; only a small number of patients are identified by screening and surveillance programs. Diagnostic analysis of EAC usually commences with upper endoscopy followed by cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasonography is useful to assess the local extent of disease as well as the involvement of regional lymph nodes. T1a EAC may be treated endoscopically, and some patients with T1b disease may also benefit from endoscopic therapy. Locally advanced disease is generally managed with esophagectomy, often accompanied by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy. The prognosis is based on tumor stage; patients with T1a tumors have an excellent prognosis, whereas few patients with advanced disease have long-term survival.


Adenocarcinoma; Endoscopic Therapy; Esophageal Neoplasms; Risk Factors

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