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mTOR, AMPK, and Sirt1: Key Players in Metabolic Stress Management.

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Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Laboratorio di Immunoreumatologia e Rigenerazione Tessutale, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy; Dipartimento RIT, Laboratorio RAMSES, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.


Cells adapt their metabolism and activities in response to signals from their surroundings, and this ability is essential for their survival in the face of environmental changes. In mammalian tissues a deficit of these mechanisms is commonly associated with cellular aging and degenerative diseases related to aging, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune system decline, and neurological pathologies. Several proteins have been identified as able to respond directly to energy, nutrient, and growth factor levels and stress stimuli in order to mediate adaptations in the cell. Many of these proteins are enzymes that positively or negatively modulate the autophagic process. This review focuses on biochemical mechanisms involving enzymes--specifically, mTOR, AMPK, and Sirt1--that are currently considered important for these adaptive responses, providing an overview of the interactions of the main players in this process.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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