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Front Microbiol. 2015 Apr 22;6:333. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00333. eCollection 2015.

An ace up their sleeve: a transcriptomic approach exposes the AceI efflux protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and reveals the drug efflux potential hidden in many microbial pathogens.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University Sydney, NSW, Australia.
2
Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds Leeds, UK.
3
Laboratory for Microbial Dynamics, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in "superbugs" that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance can be under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance. Using this approach we have characterized several novel efflux pumps in bacteria. In one example we recently identified the Acinetobacterchlorhexidine efflux protein (AceI) efflux pump in Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a novel family of multidrug efflux pumps conserved in many proteobacterial lineages. The discovery of this family raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria.

KEYWORDS:

adaptive resistance; bacterial drug resistance transcriptomics; bacterial transmembrane pair; multidrug efflux systems

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