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J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Mar 30;96(5):1467-73. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7243. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

The effect of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) on tenderness, microstructure and chemical-physical index of duck breast meat.

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Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, 210014, People's Republic of China.
Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, People's Republic of China.



Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on the application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness.


Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L(-1) AMP at 5 °C for 10 h and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P < 0.05); actomyosin dissociation, MFI, pH, water content, fiber diameter, sarcomere length, IMP and ammonia significantly increased (P < 0.05); no significant change in a* or other FAA content was observed (P > 0.05), and muscle shrinkage in transverse and longitudinal directions were restrained after AMP treatment.


The results suggest that AMP could notably improve meat tenderness, and this effect was probably mainly through increasing muscle pH, promoting actomyosin dissociation and disrupting the Z-line; meanwhile, the conversion of AMP to IMP may contribute to the flavor of meat.


adenosine 5′-monophosphate; duck; microstructure; physicochemical index; tenderness

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