Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Infect Control. 2015 May 1;43(5):435-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.11.018.

Regional and seasonal variation in Clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized patients in the United States, 2001-2010.

Author information

1
Pharmacotherapy Division, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; Pharmacotherapy Education and Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.
2
Division of Pharmacy, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
3
Pharmacotherapy Division, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; Pharmacotherapy Education and Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX. Electronic address: kdaniels46@utexas.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study identified national regional and seasonal variations in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) incidence and mortality among hospitalized patients in the United States over a 10-year period.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study of the U.S. National Hospital Discharge Survey from 2001-2010. Eligible cases had an ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis code for CDI (008.45). Data weights were used to derive national estimates. CDI incidence and mortality were presented descriptively. Regions were as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Seasons included the following: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), summer (June-August), and fall (September-November).

RESULTS:

These data represent 2.3 million CDI discharges. Overall, CDI incidence was highest in the Northeast (8.0 CDIs/1,000 discharges) and spring (6.2 CDIs/1,000 discharges). CDI incidence was lowest in the West (4.8 CDIs/1,000 discharges) and fall (5.6 CDIs/1,000 discharges). Peak CDI incidence among children occurred in the West (1.7 CDI/1,000 discharges) and winter (1.5 CDI/1,000 discharges). Mortality among all CDI patients was highest in the Midwest (7.3%) and during the winter (7.9%).

CONCLUSION:

The region and season with the highest CDI incidence rates among patients hospitalized in U.S. hospitals were the Northeast and spring, respectively. The highest CDI mortality rates were seen in the Midwest and winter. Children exhibited different regional and seasonal CDI variations compared with adults and older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Clostridium difficile; Epidemiology; Mortality

PMID:
25952045
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajic.2014.11.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center