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World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2015 May 6;6(2):17-21. doi: 10.4292/wjgpt.v6.i2.17.

Clinical relevance of clopidogrel-proton pump inhibitors interaction.

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Stella D Bouziana, Konstantinos Tziomalos, First Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki, Greece.


Clopidogrel is a widely used antiplatelet agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke. Even though clopidogrel is safer than aspirin in terms of risk for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, the elderly, and patients with a history of prior GI bleeding, with Helicobacter pylori infection or those who are also treated with aspirin, anticoagulants, corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are at high risk for GI complications when treated with clopidogrel. Accordingly, proton pump inhibitors are frequently administered in combination with clopidogrel to reduce the risk for GI bleeding. Nevertheless, pharmacodynamic studies suggest that omeprazole might attenuate the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. However, in observational studies, this interaction does not appear to translate into increased cardiovascular risk in patients treated with this combination. Moreover, in the only randomized, double-blind study that assessed the cardiovascular implications of combining clopidogrel and omeprazole, patients treated with clopidogrel/omeprazole combination had reduced risk for GI events and similar risk for cardiovascular events than patients treated with clopidogrel and placebo. However, the premature interruption of the study and the lack of power analysis in terms of the cardiovascular endpoint do not allow definite conclusions regarding the cardiovascular safety of clopidogrel/omeprazole combination. Other proton pump inhibitors do not appear to interact with clopidogrel. Nevertheless, given the limitations of existing observational and interventional studies, the decision to administer proton pump inhibitors to patients treated with clopidogrel should be individualized based on the patient's bleeding and cardiovascular risk.


Cardiovascular risk; Clopidogrel; Esomeprazole; Lansoprazole; Omeprazole; Pantoprazole; Proton pump inhibitors; Rabeprazole

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