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Mult Scler. 2015 Dec;21(14):1856-64. doi: 10.1177/1352458515578770. Epub 2015 May 6.

Timing of use of cod liver oil, a vitamin D source, and multiple sclerosis risk: The EnvIMS study.

Author information

1
The KG Jebsen Centre for MS-Research, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway/Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway/Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA Marianna.Cortese@igs.uib.no.
2
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway/The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Competence Center, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
3
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway/Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA/The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Competence Center, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
4
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway/Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Norway.
5
Department of Neurology, University Hospital of North Norway, Norway.
6
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Canada.
7
Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway/Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Sassari, Italy/Division of Medicine, McGill University, Canada.
8
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Canada/Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Canada.
9
The KG Jebsen Centre for MS-Research, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway/The Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Competence Center, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low vitamin D levels have been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), although it remains unknown whether this relationship varies by age.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between vitamin D3 supplementation through cod liver oil at different postnatal ages and MS risk.

METHODS:

In the Norwegian component of the multinational case-control study Environmental Factors In Multiple Sclerosis (EnvIMS), a total of 953 MS patients with maximum disease duration of 10 years and 1717 controls reported their cod liver oil use from childhood to adulthood.

RESULTS:

Self-reported supplement use at ages 13-18 was associated with a reduced risk of MS (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.86), whereas supplementation during childhood was not found to alter MS risk (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.81-1.26), each compared to non-use during the respective period. An inverse association was found between MS risk and the dose of cod liver oil during adolescence, suggesting a dose-response relationship (p trend = 0.001) with the strongest effect for an estimated vitamin D3 intake of 600-800 IU/d (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.31-0.70).

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings not only support the hypothesis relating to low vitamin D as a risk factor for MS, but further point to adolescence as an important susceptibility period for adult-onset MS.

KEYWORDS:

Multiple sclerosis; age; cod liver oil; environmental risk factors; supplementation; susceptibility; timing; vitamin D

PMID:
25948625
PMCID:
PMC4657387
DOI:
10.1177/1352458515578770
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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