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J Appl Gerontol. 2017 Jun;36(6):709-732. doi: 10.1177/0733464815584669. Epub 2015 May 5.

Isokinetic Dynamometry in Healthy Versus Sarcopenic and Malnourished Elderly: Beyond Simple Measurements of Muscle Strength.

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1 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, USA.
2 Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH, USA.
3 University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.


This study quantified systematic and intraindividual variability among three repetitions of concentric isokinetic knee extension and flexion tests to determine velocity-related differences in peak torque (PT) and mean power (MP) in healthy elderly (HE) versus sarcopenic and malnourished elderly (SME). In total, 107 HE ( n = 54 men, n = 53 women) and 261 SME ( n = 101 men, n = 160 women) performed three maximal concentric isokinetic knee extension and flexion repetitions at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1. PT for Repetition 3 was lower than Repetitions 1 and 2, while MP for Repetition 1 was lower than Repetitions 2 and 3 in SME. Intraindividual variability among repetitions was correlated with strength, but not age, and was greater in SME, during knee flexion, and at 180°·s-1. Velocity-related decreases in PT from 60°·s-1 to 180°·s-1 were more pronounced in SME. In summary, (a) the repetition with the highest PT value may be the best indicator of maximal strength, while the average may indicate strength maintenance in SME; (b) intraindividual variability among repetitions reflects functional decrements from HE to SME; and.


angular velocity; atrophy; fast-twitch; sarcopenia; slow-twitch; type II fibers

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