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Obes Surg. 2015 Dec;25(12):2344-51. doi: 10.1007/s11695-015-1700-0.

Short-Term Changes in Body Composition and Response to Micronutrient Supplementation After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

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Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Division of Physiology, Federico II University of Naples, Via Pansini n 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Division of Physiology, Federico II University of Naples, Via Pansini n 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.



We evaluated dietary intakes, body composition, micronutrient deficiency, and response to micronutrient supplementation in 47 patients before and for 6 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).


Before, 3, and 6 months after LSG, we measured dietary intakes with food-frequency questionnaires, body composition with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and bioelectrical vector analysis (BIVA), and plasma concentrations of iron, Zn, water-, and lipo-soluble vitamins.


After LSG, energy intake significantly decreased and patients lost weight, fat mass, and free-fat mass. BIVA showed a substantial loss of soft tissue body cell mass (BCM) with no change in hydration. Before surgery, 15 % of patients were iron deficient, 30 % had low levels of zinc and/or water-soluble vitamins, and 32 % of vitamin 25(OH)-D3. We treated iron deficiency with ferrous sulfate, isolated folate deficiency with N5-methyiltetrahydrofolate-Ca-pentahydrate, and deficiencies in vitamin B1, B12, or Zn, with or without concomitant folate deficiency, with multivitamin. No supplementation was given to vitamin 25(OH)-D3 deficient patients. At first follow-up, 7 % of patients developed new deficiencies in iron, 7 % in folic acid (n = 3), and 36 % in water-soluble vitamins and/or zinc whereas no new deficit in vitamin 25(OH)-D3 occurred. At final follow-up, deficiencies were corrected in all patients treated with either iron or folate but only in 32 % of those receiving multivitamin. Vitamin 25(OH)-D3 deficiency was corrected in 73 % of patients even though these patients were not supplemented.


LSG-induced weight loss is accompanied by a decrease in BCM with no body fluid alterations. Deficiencies in water-soluble vitamins and Zn respond poorly to multivitamin supplementation.


Bioimpedence analysis; Body composition; Folic acid; Iron; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Trace metals; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Vitamin B12; Vitamin D; Vitamin E; Zinc

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