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Obes Surg. 2015 Dec;25(12):2344-51. doi: 10.1007/s11695-015-1700-0.

Short-Term Changes in Body Composition and Response to Micronutrient Supplementation After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Division of Physiology, Federico II University of Naples, Via Pansini n 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
  • 2Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
  • 3Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
  • 4Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Division of Physiology, Federico II University of Naples, Via Pansini n 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.



We evaluated dietary intakes, body composition, micronutrient deficiency, and response to micronutrient supplementation in 47 patients before and for 6 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).


Before, 3, and 6 months after LSG, we measured dietary intakes with food-frequency questionnaires, body composition with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and bioelectrical vector analysis (BIVA), and plasma concentrations of iron, Zn, water-, and lipo-soluble vitamins.


After LSG, energy intake significantly decreased and patients lost weight, fat mass, and free-fat mass. BIVA showed a substantial loss of soft tissue body cell mass (BCM) with no change in hydration. Before surgery, 15 % of patients were iron deficient, 30 % had low levels of zinc and/or water-soluble vitamins, and 32 % of vitamin 25(OH)-D3. We treated iron deficiency with ferrous sulfate, isolated folate deficiency with N5-methyiltetrahydrofolate-Ca-pentahydrate, and deficiencies in vitamin B1, B12, or Zn, with or without concomitant folate deficiency, with multivitamin. No supplementation was given to vitamin 25(OH)-D3 deficient patients. At first follow-up, 7 % of patients developed new deficiencies in iron, 7 % in folic acid (n = 3), and 36 % in water-soluble vitamins and/or zinc whereas no new deficit in vitamin 25(OH)-D3 occurred. At final follow-up, deficiencies were corrected in all patients treated with either iron or folate but only in 32 % of those receiving multivitamin. Vitamin 25(OH)-D3 deficiency was corrected in 73 % of patients even though these patients were not supplemented.


LSG-induced weight loss is accompanied by a decrease in BCM with no body fluid alterations. Deficiencies in water-soluble vitamins and Zn respond poorly to multivitamin supplementation.


Bioimpedence analysis; Body composition; Folic acid; Iron; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Trace metals; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Vitamin B12; Vitamin D; Vitamin E; Zinc

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