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Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015 Jun;4(6):625-31. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0202. Epub 2015 May 6.

Immunobiology of fibrin-based engineered heart tissue.

Author information

1
University Heart Center Hamburg, Transplant and Stem Cell Immunobiology Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, and Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Stanford Cardiovascular Institute and Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford, California, USA.
2
University Heart Center Hamburg, Transplant and Stem Cell Immunobiology Laboratory, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, and Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Stanford Cardiovascular Institute and Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford, California, USA schrepfer@stanford.edu.

Abstract

Different tissue-engineering approaches have been developed to induce and promote cardiac regeneration; however, the impact of the immune system and its responses to the various scaffold components of the engineered grafts remains unclear. Fibrin-based engineered heart tissue (EHT) was generated from neonatal Lewis (Lew) rat heart cells and transplanted onto the left ventricular surface of three different rat strains: syngeneic Lew, allogeneic Brown Norway, and immunodeficient Rowett Nude rats. Interferon spot frequency assay results showed similar degrees of systemic immune activation in the syngeneic and allogeneic groups, whereas no systemic immune response was detectable in the immunodeficient group (p < .001 vs. syngeneic and allogeneic). Histological analysis revealed much higher local infiltration of CD3- and CD68-positive cells in syngeneic and allogeneic rats than in immunodeficient animals. Enzyme-linked immunospot and immunofluorescence experiments revealed matrix-directed TH1-based rejection in syngeneic recipients without collateral impairment of heart cell survival. Bioluminescence imaging was used for in vivo longitudinal monitoring of transplanted luciferase-positive EHT constructs. Survival was documented in syngeneic and immunodeficient recipients for a period of up to 110 days after transplant, whereas in the allogeneic setting, graft survival was limited to only 14 ± 1 days. EHT strategies using autologous cells are promising approaches for cardiac repair applications. Although fibrin-based scaffold components elicited an immune response in our studies, syngeneic cells carried in the EHT were relatively unaffected.

SIGNIFICANCE:

An initial insight into immunological consequences after transplantation of engineered heart tissue was gained through this study. Most important, this study was able to demonstrate cell survival despite rejection of matrix components. Generation of syngeneic human engineered heart tissue, possibly using human induced pluripotent stem cell technology with subsequent directed rejection of matrix components, may be a potential future approach to replace diseased myocardium.

KEYWORDS:

Bioluminescence imaging; Engineered heart tissue; Immune response; Rat; Rejection; Scaffold

PMID:
25947338
PMCID:
PMC4449088
DOI:
10.5966/sctm.2013-0202
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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