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Surg Radiol Anat. 2015 Nov;37(9):1119-27. doi: 10.1007/s00276-015-1480-1. Epub 2015 May 7.

Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

Author information

1
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy.
2
EndoCAS Center, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Sport Medicine Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. carla.stecco@unipd.it.
4
Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
5
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy. marco.gesi@med.unipi.it.
6
EndoCAS Center, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. marco.gesi@med.unipi.it.

Abstract

The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

KEYWORDS:

Cervical fascia; Deep fascia; Superficial fascia; Visceral fascia

PMID:
25946970
DOI:
10.1007/s00276-015-1480-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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