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J Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Mar 4;2(1):2. doi: 10.1186/2049-9256-2-2. eCollection 2014.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

Author information

1
Servei de Medicina Interna, Unitat VIH/Sida, Hospital Universitari MútuaTerrassa, Pl.Dr.Robert, 5, 088221 Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain ; Fundació Docència i Recerca MútuaTerrassa, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Fundació Docència i Recerca MútuaTerrassa, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Servei de Neurologia, Hospital Universitari MútuaTerrassa, Barcelona, Spain.
4
Department of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
5
Fundació Docència i Recerca MútuaTerrassa, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain ; Servei de Neurologia, Hospital Universitari MútuaTerrassa, Barcelona, Spain ; Department of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
6
Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Medicine Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Abstract

Currently, neuropsychological impairment among HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy leads to a reduction in the quality of life and it is an important challenge due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its concomitant consequences in relation to morbidity and mortality- including those HIV+ patients with adequate immunological and virological status. The fact that the virus is established in CNS in the early stages and its persistence within the CNS can help us to understand HIV-related brain injury even when highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective. The rising interest in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders has let to development new diagnostic tools, improvement of the neuropsychological tests, and the use of new biomarkers and new neuroimaging techniques that can help the diagnosis. Standardization and homogenization of neurocognitive tests as well as normalizing and simplification of easily accessible tools that can identify patients with increased risk of cognitive impairment represent an urgent requirement. Future efforts should also focus on diagnostic keys and searching for useful strategies in order to decrease HIV neurotoxicity within the CNS.

KEYWORDS:

HAND; HIV; Neurocognitive disorders

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