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Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Apr 17;7:281-93. doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S44336. eCollection 2015.

Cushing's syndrome: epidemiology and developments in disease management.

Author information

1
Program in Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
2
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Abstract

Cushing's syndrome is a rare disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Early diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's syndrome is associated with a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation can be highly variable, and establishing the diagnosis can often be difficult. Surgery (resection of the pituitary or ectopic source of adrenocorticotropic hormone, or unilateral or bilateral adrenalectomy) remains the optimal treatment in all forms of Cushing's syndrome, but may not always lead to remission. Medical therapy (steroidogenesis inhibitors, agents that decrease adrenocorticotropic hormone levels or glucocorticoid receptor antagonists) and pituitary radiotherapy may be needed as an adjunct. A multidisciplinary approach, long-term follow-up, and treatment modalities customized to each individual are essential for optimal control of hypercortisolemia and management of comorbidities.

KEYWORDS:

Cushing’s syndrome; epidemiology; hypercortisolemia; treatment

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