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Dis Colon Rectum. 2015 Jun;58(6):556-65. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000349.

Selective approach for upper rectal cancer treatment: total mesorectal excision and preoperative chemoradiation are seldom necessary.

Author information

1
1 Department of Digestive Surgery, Coloproctology Unit, Hospital Universitario i Politècnic La Fe, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain 2 Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain 3 Department of General Surgery, Coloproctology Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The implementation of preoperative chemoradiation combined with total mesorectal excision has reduced local recurrence rates in rectal cancer. However, the use of both types of treatment in upper rectal cancer is controversial.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this work was to assess oncological results after radical resection of upper rectal cancers compared with sigmoid, middle, and lower rectal cancers and to determine risk factors for local recurrence in upper rectal cancer.

DESIGN:

This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

SETTINGS:

This study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital in Valencia, Spain.

PATIENTS:

Analysis included 1145 patients who underwent colorectal resection with primary curative intent for primary sigmoid (n = 450), rectosigmoid (n = 70), upper rectal (n = 178), middle rectal (n = 186), or lower rectal (n = 261) cancer.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Oncological results, including local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cancer-specific survival, were compared between the different tumor locations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for local recurrence in upper rectal cancer.

RESULTS:

A total of 147 patients (82.6%) with upper rectal tumors underwent partial mesorectal excision, and only 10 patients (5.6%) of that group received preoperative chemoradiation. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cancer-specific survival rates for upper rectal tumors were 4.9%, 82.0%, and 91.6%. Local recurrence rates showed no differences when compared among all of the locations (p = 0.20), whereas disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival were shorter for lower rectal tumors (p = 0.006; p = 0.003). The only independent risk factor for local recurrence in upper rectal cancer was an involved circumferential resection margin at pathologic analysis (HR, 14.23 (95% CI, 2.75-73.71); p = 0.002).

LIMITATIONS:

This was a single-institution, retrospective study.

CONCLUSIONS:

Most upper rectal tumors can be treated with partial mesorectal excision without the systematic use of preoperative chemoradiation. Involvement of the mesorectal fascia was the only independent risk factor for local recurrence in these tumors.

PMID:
25944427
DOI:
10.1097/DCR.0000000000000349
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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