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Diagn Pathol. 2015 May 6;10:48. doi: 10.1186/s13000-015-0279-z.

Pathologic manifestations of levamisole-adulterated cocaine exposure.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0102, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA. Amber.Nolan2@ucsf.edu.
2
Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0102, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA. kuangyujen@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

Rheumatic manifestations of cocaine have been well described, but more recently, a dramatic increase in the levamisole-adulterated cocaine supply in the United States has disclosed unique pathologic consequences that are distinct from pure cocaine use. Most notably, patients show skin lesions and renal dysfunction in the setting of extremely high perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA). Unexpectedly, antibodies to myeloperoxidase, the typical target of p-ANCA, are relatively low if at all present. This discrepancy is due to the fact that p-ANCA seen in association with levamisole-adulterated cocaine exposure is often directed against atypical p-ANCA-associated antigens within the neutrophil granules such as human neutrophil elastase, lactoferrin, and cathepsin G. Biopsies of the skin lesions reveal leukocytoclastic vasculitis often involving both superficial and deep dermal vessels. Renal injury most typically manifests as crescentic and necrotizing pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. In this review, the manifestations of levamisole-adulterated cocaine-induced vasculitis are discussed with an emphasis on the typical histomorphologic findings seen on biopsy.

VIRTUAL SLIDES:

The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1764738711370019 .

PMID:
25943359
PMCID:
PMC4419488
DOI:
10.1186/s13000-015-0279-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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