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Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015 Aug;54(8):811-24. doi: 10.1007/s40262-015-0270-6.

A Comprehensive Review of Drug-Drug Interactions with Metformin.

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Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsloews vej 19, 2nd Floor, 5000, Odense, Denmark,


Metformin is the world's most commonly used oral glucose-lowering drug for type 2 diabetes, and this is mainly because it protects against diabetes-related mortality and all-cause mortality. Although it is an old drug, its mechanism of action has not yet been clarified and its pharmacokinetic pathway is still not fully understood. There is considerable inter-individual variability in the response to metformin, and this has led to many drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies of metformin. In this review, we describe both in vitro and human interaction studies of metformin both as a victim and as a perpetrator. We also clarify the importance of including pharmacodynamic end points in DDI studies of metformin and taking pharmacogenetic variation into account when performing these studies to avoid hidden pitfalls in the interpretation of DDIs with metformin. This evaluation of the literature has revealed holes in our knowledge and given clues as to where future DDI studies should be focused and performed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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