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Int J Psychol. 2016 Oct;51(5):323-31. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12167. Epub 2015 May 4.

Sleep variability and fatigue in adolescents: Associations with school-related features.

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FMH/University of Lisbon & ISAMB/University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
Psychology School, Lusíada University of Lisbon & ISAMB/University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
FCM/NOVA University of Lisbon & ISAMB/University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
CENC - Sleep Medicine Centre & ISAMB/University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.


This study aims to evaluate the influences of sleep duration and sleep variability (SleepV), upon adolescents' school-related situations. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants were 3164 pupils (53.7% girls), attending the 8th and 10th grades, 14.9 years old, and were inquired about subjective sleep duration during the week and weekends, SleepV, fatigue, difficulties in sleep initiation, school achievement, feelings towards schools, pressure with school work and skipping classes. Multiple regression models used, as dependent variables: (a) school achievement, (b) disliking school, (c) pressure with school work and (d) skipping classes, using as independent variables, each of the remaining school-related variables, fatigue, total sleep duration and difficulties in sleep initiation. The average sleep duration in the week and during weekdays was lower than recommended for these age groups, and almost half of students had high SleepV between weekdays and weekends. A logistic model revealed that the absence of SleepV was associated with lower perception of school work pressure, less frequent skipping classes, more infrequent fatigue and more infrequent difficulties in sleep initiation. Poor sleep quality, SleepV and insufficient sleep duration affected negatively school-related variables.


Fatigue; School participation; Skipping classes; Sleep initiation; Sleep variability

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