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Clin Immunol. 2015 Sep;160(1):24-35. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2015.04.013. Epub 2015 May 1.

Micro and nanoparticle drug delivery systems for preventing allotransplant rejection.

Author information

1
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; The Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; The McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
2
The McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; The McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: srlittle@pitt.edu.

Abstract

Despite decades of advances in transplant immunology, tissue damage caused by acute allograft rejection remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the transplant recipient. Moreover, the long-term sequelae of lifelong immunosuppression leaves patients at risk for developing a host of other deleterious conditions. Controlled drug delivery using micro- and nanoparticles (MNPs) is an effective way to deliver higher local doses of a given drug to specific tissues and cells while mitigating systemic effects. Herein, we review several descriptions of MNP immunotherapies aimed at prolonging allograft survival. We also discuss developments in the field of biomimetic drug delivery that use MNP constructs to induce and recruit our bodies' own suppressive immune cells. Finally, we comment on the regulatory pathway associated with these drug delivery systems. Collectively, it is our hope the studies described in this review will help to usher in a new era of immunotherapy in organ transplantation.

KEYWORDS:

Biomaterials; Biomimetic; Controlled release; Microparticles; Nanoparticles; Transplant immunology

PMID:
25937032
PMCID:
PMC4554802
DOI:
10.1016/j.clim.2015.04.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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