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Expert Rev Neurother. 2015 May;15(5):549-62. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2015.1038244.

Parkinson's disease: a review of non-motor symptoms.

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Parkinson's Clinic of Eastern Toronto & Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from degeneration of the substantia nigra and the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Most treatments are geared toward the management and relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's patients; however, as the disease progresses, various complications can be observed. Non-motor symptoms (NMS) may arise simply from the disease itself and are highly destructive to quality of life. These symptoms include mood disorders, cognitive dysfunction, pain, sensory dysfunction, and dysautonomia. Though it is undisputed that many NMS may appear years or even decades prior to the clinical diagnosis of PD, the focus of this review will be the overt motor phase of the condition. As such, the focus of this paper is to review the major NMS found in PD patients status post-diagnosis, their etiology, as well as treatment options available for the individual NMS.


Parkinson’s disease; cognitive dysfunction; mood disorders; non-motor symptoms; pain; quality of life; sensory dysfunction

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