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J Med Microbiol. 2015 Jul;64(7):774-7. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000068. Epub 2015 May 1.

Modified Hodge test using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with cloxacillin improves screening for carbapenemase-producing clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae.

Author information

1
1​Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Kitasato University Hospital, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0375, Japan 2​Department of Infection Control and Infectious Diseases, Research and Development Center for New Medical Frontiers, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan.
2
3​Laboratory Department, Kitasato University Hospital, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0375, Japan.
3
4​Department of Microbiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan.

Abstract

Increasing numbers of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that produce carbapenemase are now being detected, with the most common carbapenemase found among Enterobacteriaceae in Japan being IMP-1-type metallo-β-lactamase. Clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae harbouring carbapenemases may be resistant to carbapenem antimicrobial agents, despite apparent in vitro susceptibility when tested according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. We evaluated the prevalence of carbapenemase producers among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae at our hospital and assessed the performance of the modified Hodge test (MHT) for correctly identifying the phenotype. We studied 47 clinical isolates obtained between 2006 and 2010 for which the MIC of imipenem was 2 or 4 μg imipenem ml- 1. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was done for cephalosporins and carbapenems, the MHT was performed with meropenem and detection of the genes encoding IMP-1, VIM-2, KPC-2 and NDM-1-type metallo-β-lactamases was performed by PCR. Twelve isolates showed a positive result in the MHT with meropenem and were classified as carbapenemase producers. Of these 12 isolates, seven carried the gene for IMP-1 type, but not for VIM-2, KPC-2 or NDM-1 types. None of the carbapenemase genes tested were detected in the other five isolates. All five isolates were Enterobacter cloacae showing high resistance to ceftazidime and aztreonam. False-positive results were inhibited when Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 200 mg cloxacillin ml- 1 was used for the MHT. Five of 12 MHT-positive isolates were shown to have no carbapenemase genes and these isolates were high AmpC producers. Adding cloxacillin when performing the MHT prevented such false-positive results. The MHT with cloxacillin can overcome most problems related to detection of carbapenemases.

PMID:
25934552
DOI:
10.1099/jmm.0.000068
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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