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Genes Dev. 2015 May 1;29(9):975-87. doi: 10.1101/gad.251520.114.

Arabidopsis TOE proteins convey a photoperiodic signal to antagonize CONSTANS and regulate flowering time.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Institute of Plant Biology, Center for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China;
2
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Institute of Plant Biology, Center for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China;
3
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Institute of Plant Biology, Center for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China hongma@fudan.edu.cn.

Abstract

Plants flower in an appropriate season to allow sufficient vegetative development and position flower development in favorable environments. In Arabidopsis, CONSTANS (CO) and FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX1 (FKF1) promote flowering by inducing FLOWER LOCUS T (FT) expression in the long-day afternoon. The CO protein is present in the morning but could not activate FT expression due to unknown negative mechanisms, which prevent premature flowering before the day length reaches a threshold. Here, we report that TARGET OF EAT1 (TOE1) and related proteins interact with the activation domain of CO and CO-like (COL) proteins and inhibit CO activity. TOE1 binds to the FT promoter near the CO-binding site, and reducing TOE function results in a morning peak of the FT mRNA. In addition, TOE1 interacts with the LOV domain of FKF1 and likely interferes with the FKF1-CO interaction, resulting in partial degradation of the CO protein in the afternoon to prevent premature flowering.

KEYWORDS:

CONSTANS; FT expression; TARGET OF EAT; flowering; photoperiod; protein interaction

PMID:
25934507
PMCID:
PMC4421985
DOI:
10.1101/gad.251520.114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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