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J Neurovirol. 2015 Jun;21(3):235-41. doi: 10.1007/s13365-015-0346-y. Epub 2015 May 2.

Role of the macrophage in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and other comorbidities in patients on effective antiretroviral treatment.

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Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Medicine Education and Research Building-Room 746 MERB, 3500 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA,


Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has altered the outcomes of HIV infection in treated populations by greatly reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections, cancer, and HIV-associated dementia. Despite these benefits, treated patients remain at high risk of chronic diseases affecting the peripheral organs and brain. Generally, these morbidities are attributed to persistence of latent HIV in resting T cells, chronic inflammation, and metabolic effects of ART. This review makes the case that monocytes/macrophages warrant attention as persistent reservoirs of HIV under ART, source of systemic and brain inflammation, and important targets for HIV eradication to control chronic HIV diseases.

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