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Biosens Bioelectron. 2015 Sep 15;71:359-364. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.04.058. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

An organic electronic biomimetic neuron enables auto-regulated neuromodulation.

Author information

1
Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, ITN, Linköping University, S-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden. Electronic address: daniel.simon@liu.se.
2
Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Acreo Swedish ICT AB, S-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
4
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
5
Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, ITN, Linköping University, S-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
6
Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: agneta.richter.dahlfors@ki.se.

Abstract

Current therapies for neurological disorders are based on traditional medication and electric stimulation. Here, we present an organic electronic biomimetic neuron, with the capacity to precisely intervene with the underlying malfunctioning signalling pathway using endogenous substances. The fundamental function of neurons, defined as chemical-to-electrical-to-chemical signal transduction, is achieved by connecting enzyme-based amperometric biosensors and organic electronic ion pumps. Selective biosensors transduce chemical signals into an electric current, which regulates electrophoretic delivery of chemical substances without necessitating liquid flow. Biosensors detected neurotransmitters in physiologically relevant ranges of 5-80 µM, showing linear response above 20 µm with approx. 0.1 nA/µM slope. When exceeding defined threshold concentrations, biosensor output signals, connected via custom hardware/software, activated local or distant neurotransmitter delivery from the organic electronic ion pump. Changes of 20 µM glutamate or acetylcholine triggered diffusive delivery of acetylcholine, which activated cells via receptor-mediated signalling. This was observed in real-time by single-cell ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging. The results demonstrate the potential of the organic electronic biomimetic neuron in therapies involving long-range neuronal signalling by mimicking the function of projection neurons. Alternatively, conversion of glutamate-induced descending neuromuscular signals into acetylcholine-mediated muscular activation signals may be obtained, applicable for bridging injured sites and active prosthetics.

KEYWORDS:

Controlled drug release; Neural prosthesis; Neuromodulation; Organic electronic material

PMID:
25932795
DOI:
10.1016/j.bios.2015.04.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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