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PLoS One. 2015 May 1;10(5):e0124920. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124920. eCollection 2015.

Comparative evaluation of MRSA nasal colonization epidemiology in the urban and rural secondary school community of Kurdistan, Iraq.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
2
Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Lab, Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
3
Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
4
Department of Family & Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To study the nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (including methicillin-resistant strains) in secondary school community of the urban and rural districts of the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a cross-sectional population based survey was carried out in the city Duhok and rural areas of Amedya, Akre and Zakho.

METHODS:

Nasal swabs were obtained from nostrils of 509 students aged 14-23 years. Resistance to methicillin was assessed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and agar dilution assay. Vancomycin sensitivity was also tested on Muller-Hinton agar.

RESULTS:

It was found that the frequency of overall S. aureus nasal carriage (SANC) was 17.75% (90/509, CI95, 14.58-21.42%). In urban areas, the carriage rate was 20.59% (49/239, CI95, 15.64-26.29%), whereas it was 15.24% (41/270, CI95, 11.17-20.10%) in rural districts. The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among the isolated strains was found to be 2.04% (1/49) and 21.95% (9/41) in urban and rural areas respectively. It was found that in urban residents, the odd ratio (OR) of acquiring SANC was 1.44 (CI95, 0.91-2.27%) and risk ratio (RR) was at least 1.35 (CI95, 0.92-1.96%) while OR decreased to 0.12 (CI95, 0.01-0.96%) for MRSA carriage. Hence, the S. aureus carriage rate was higher in urban districts compared to rural areas while more MRSA were found in rural areas compared to urban districts. All studied strains were sensitive to vancomycin.

CONCLUSION:

This study provided baseline information for S. aureus nasal colonization in the region. Also, it showed that living in rural areas increased the odds of MRSA colonization. More attention should be paid to control MRSA colonization in rural communities.

PMID:
25932644
PMCID:
PMC4416827
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0124920
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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