Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Jun;36(6):395-405. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2015.03.006. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Arginase: an old enzyme with new tricks.

Author information

1
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, One Freedom Way, Augusta, GA 30904, USA; Vision Discovery Institute, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. Electronic address: rcaldwel@gru.edu.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
3
Vision Discovery Institute, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
4
Vision Discovery Institute, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1459 Laney Walker Boulevard, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. Electronic address: wcaldwel@gru.edu.

Abstract

Arginase has roots in early life-forms. It converts L-arginine to urea and ornithine. The former provides protection against NH3; the latter serves to stimulate cell growth and other physiological functions. Excessive arginase activity in mammals has been associated with cardiovascular and nervous system dysfunction and disease. Two relevant aspects of this elevated activity may be involved in these disease states. First, excessive arginase activity reduces the supply of L-arginine needed by nitric oxide (NO) synthase to produce NO. Second, excessive production of ornithine leads to vascular structural problems and neural toxicity. Recent research has identified inflammatory agents and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as drivers of this pathologic elevation of arginase activity and expression. We review the involvement of arginase in cardiovascular and nervous system dysfunction, and discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting excess arginase.

KEYWORDS:

arginase; neurodegeneration; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; peroxynitrite; polyamine; superoxide; vascular dysfunction

PMID:
25930708
PMCID:
PMC4461463
DOI:
10.1016/j.tips.2015.03.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center