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Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16(7):737-54. doi: 10.2217/pgs.15.20. Epub 2015 May 1.

Pharmacometabonomics in humans: a new tool for personalized medicine.


Pharmacogenomics is now over 50 years old and has had some impact in clinical practice, through its use to select patient subgroups who will enjoy efficacy without side effects when treated with certain drugs. However, pharmacogenomics, has had less impact than initially predicted. One reason for this is that many diseases, and the way in which the patients respond to drug treatments, have both genetic and environmental elements. Pure genomics is almost blind to the environmental elements. A new methodology has emerged, termed pharmacometabonomics that is concerned with the prediction of drug effects through the analysis of predose, biofluid metabolite profiles, which reflect both genetic and environmental influences on human physiology. In this review we will cover what pharmacometabonomics is, how it works, what applications exist and what the future might hold in this exciting new area.


NMR spectroscopy; metabolomics; metabonomics; personalized medicine; pharmacometabolomics; pharmacometabonomics; precision medicine

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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