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Am J Cardiol. 2015 Jun 15;115(12):1667-71. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.03.012. Epub 2015 Mar 23.

Usefulness of early rule-in and rule-out biomarker protocols to estimate ischemia-induced myocardial injury in early chest pain presenters.

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Department of Cardiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium. Electronic address:
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium; Translational Pathophysiological Research Group, University of Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium.
Department of Cardiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium.


Protocols to minimize the time between 2 measurements of troponin or a combination with copeptin have been developed to rapidly rule-in or rule-out myocardial injury (MI) in patients with chest pain. These fast track protocols to rule-in and rule-out MI are not sufficiently validated for early chest pain presenters. The "early presenter" model was tested in 107 stable patients after a short period of myocardial ischemia, induced by stenting of a significant coronary artery stenosis. High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), and copeptin were measured at the start and 90, 180, and 360 minutes after stent implantation. MI was defined as a troponin level more than the upper limit of normal (ULN) and an absolute increase of >50% ULN on the 360-minute sample. A single combined measurement of troponin and copeptin 90 minutes after the onset of ischemia has a low diagnostic value. This increases when serial measurements with 90-minute intervals are included. For ruling in MI, the highest positive predictive value (with a 95% confidence interval [CI]) can be obtained when focusing only on the increase in troponin level, with a positive predictive value of 86% (70, 93) and 80% (67, 90) for hsTnT and hsTnI, respectively. For ruling out MI, a combined absence of any troponin more than the ULN and any significant increase in troponin level perform best with a negative predictive value of 75% (55, 89) and 75% (55, 89) for hsTnT and hsTnI, respectively. In conclusion, in early presenters, rapid biomarker protocols underestimate MI. A standard biomarker assessment after 3 hours is required to adequately rule-in or rule-out myonecrosis.

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