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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 May;93(5):355-62. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2014-0479.

Vitamins and their derivatives in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome diseases (diabetes).

Author information

1
St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 351 Tache Avenue Winnipeg, MB R2H 2A6, Canada.

Abstract

A cluster of inter-related conditions such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism, and hypertension is referred to as Metabolic Syndrome, which is a risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes. The micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes contribute to its morbidity and mortality. In addition to its calcitropic effect, vitamin D is a regulator of gene expression as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Various cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies have indicated a beneficial effect from vitamin D supplementation on the development of type-2 diabetes. Binding of retinol-bound retinol-binding protein to a membrane-binding protein suppresses insulin signaling. All-trans retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A, reverses these effects, resulting in increased insulin sensitivity, suppression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) gene, and the induction of the glucokinase gene. Glucokinase and PEPCK are also regulated in opposite directions by the vitamin biotin, acting at the transcriptional level. Biotin also regulates the synthesis of insulin by the islet of Langerhans cells of the pancreas. The increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is implicated in the initiation and progression of diabetes-associated microvascular diseases. Benfotiamine, a derivative of thiamine, and pyridoxamine, a vitamer of vitamin B6, both have anti-AGE properties, making them valuable therapeutic adjuvants in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thus, various vitamins and their derivatives have profound therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

benfotiamine; biotin; biotine; inflammatory and immune systems; insulin signaling; maladies microvasculaires; microvascular diseases; pyridoxamine; signalisation de l’insuline; systèmes inflammatoire et immunitaire; vitamin A; vitamin D; vitamine A; vitamine D

PMID:
25929424
DOI:
10.1139/cjpp-2014-0479
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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