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Diagn Pathol. 2015 Apr 28;10:41. doi: 10.1186/s13000-015-0276-2.

Persistence of chloroquine-resistant haplotypes of Plasmodium falciparum in children with uncomplicated Malaria in Lagos, Nigeria, four years after change of chloroquine as first-line antimalarial medicine.

Author information

1
ANDI Centre of Excellence for Malaria Diagnosis/WHO-FIND Malaria Specimen Collection Site, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, P.M.B 12003, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria. oladosu_dipo@yahoo.com.
2
ANDI Centre of Excellence for Malaria Diagnosis/WHO-FIND Malaria Specimen Collection Site, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, P.M.B 12003, Idiaraba, Lagos, Nigeria. wellao@yahoo.com.
3
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. colin.sutherland@lshtm.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In Nigeria, despite the change in National malaria drug policy to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in 2005 due to widespread chloroquine resistance, chloroquine (CQ) is still widely used in the treatment of malaria because it is cheap, affordable and accessible. The use of ACT for the management of uncomplicated malaria is currently being promoted. The employment of genetic markers to track circulating chloroquine-resistant parasites are useful in elucidating likely poor efficacy of chloroquine, especially in settings where it is not recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. This study determined the prevalence of pfcrt haplotypes and point mutations in pfmdr1 genes four years after the change in antimalarial treatment policy from CQ to the ACTs in Lagos, a commercial city in South-West, Nigeria.

METHODS:

This was a cross sectional study on uncomplicated malaria in children less than 12 years that presented with fever and other symptoms suggestive of malaria. Parasite DNA was extracted from 119 patients out of 251 children who were positive for Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy and amplified. The occurrence of haplotypes was investigated in pfcrt gene using probe-based qPCR and single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfmdr1 gene using nested PCR.

RESULTS:

One hundred and nine (109) of the 119 children with P falciparum infection (91.6%) harbourd parasites with the mutant pfcrt haplotype (CVIET). Out of this, 4.2% comprised a mixture of genotypes encoding CVMNK and CVIET, while 4.2% had the wild type (CVMNK). Furthermore, the frequency of point mutations in pfmdr1 was 62.2% and 69.0% for codons Y86 and F184 respectively. There were no mutations at codons 1034, 1042 and 1246 of the Pfmdr1 genes.

CONCLUSION:

The high frequency of the CQ-resistant haplotypes (CVIET) and mutations in Pfmdr1 associated with CQ resistance in P. falciparum among these children suggest that CQ-resistant parasites are still in circulation. Continuous use of chloroquine may continue to increase the level of mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1genes. There is need to strengthen current case management efforts at promoting ACT use as well as urgently restricting access to chloroquine by the National drug regulatory agency, National Agency for Food Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC).

VIRTUAL SLIDES:

The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2069472010142303.

PMID:
25928117
PMCID:
PMC4411931
DOI:
10.1186/s13000-015-0276-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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