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J Reprod Infertil. 2015 Apr-Jun;16(2):61-71.

Exploring the human seminal plasma proteome: an unexplored gold mine of biomarker for male infertility and male reproduction disorder.

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Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology, Section Molecular Andrology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.



The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder.


In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database.


The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far.


In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome.


Biomarker; Human seminal plasma; Proteome; Proteomics


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