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Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Jun;407(16):4805-14. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8686-2. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

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Escola de Química e Alimentos, Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais (LACOM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av Itália, km 8, Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil.


The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

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