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Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2015 May;147(5 Suppl):S216-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.02.007.

Evolution of occlusion and temporomandibular disorder in orthodontics: Past, present, and future.

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Professor and chairman, Provost's Distinguished Service Professorship, Department of Oral Health Science; director, Orofacial Pain Program, College of Dentistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. Electronic address:


Occlusion has been an important consideration in orthodontics since the beginning of the discipline. Early emphasis was placed on the alignment of the teeth, the stability of the intercuspal position, and the esthetic value of proper tooth positioning. These factors remain important to orthodontists, but orthopedic principles associated with masticatory functions must also be considered. Orthopedic stability in the masticatory structures should be a routine treatment goal to help reduce risk factors associated with developing temporomandibular disorders.

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