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N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 30;372(18):1722-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1409463.

Intensive diabetes therapy and ocular surgery in type 1 diabetes.

Collaborators (522)

Genuth S, Nathan DM, Zinman B, Crofford O, Crandall J, Reid M, Brown-Friday J, Engel S, Sheindlin J, Phillips M, Martinez H, Shamoon H, Engel H, Gubitosi-Klug R, Mayer L, Pendegast S, Zegarra H, Miller D, Singerman L, Smith-Brewer S, Novak M, Quin J, Genuth S, Palmert M, Brown E, McConnell J, Pugsley P, Crawford P, Dahms W, Brillon D, Lackaye ME, Kiss S, Chan R, Orlin A, Rubin M, Reppucci V, Lee T, Heinemann M, Chang S, Levy B, Jovanovic L, Richardson M, Bosco B, Dwoskin A, Hanna R, Barron S, Campbell R, Whitehouse F, Kruger D, Jones JK, Edwards PA, Bhan A, Carey JD, Angus E, Thomas A, McLellan M, Galprin A, Bergenstal R, Johnson M, Gunyou K, Morgan K, Kendall D, Spencer M, Etzwiler D, Aiello LP, Golden E, Arrigg P, Asuquo V, Beaser R, Bestourous L, Cavallerano J, Cavicchi R, Ganda O, Hamdy O, Kirby R, Murtha T, Schlossman D, Shah S, Sharuk G, Silva P, Silver P, Stockman M, Weimann E, Wolpert H, Aiello LM, Jacobson A, Rand L, Rosenzwieg J, Nathan DM, Larkin ME, Christofi M, Folino K, Godine J, Lou P, Stevens C, Anderson E, Bode H, Brink S, Cornish C, Cros D, Delahanty L, deManbey A, Haggan C, Lynch J, McKitrick C, Norman D, Moore D, Ong M, Taylor C, Zimbler D, Crowell S, Fritz S, Hansen K, Gauthier-Kelly C, Service FJ, Ziegler G, Colligan R, Schmidt L, French B, Woodwick R, Rizza R, Schwenk WF, Haymond M, Pach J, Mortenson J, Zimmerman B, Lucas A, Luttrell L, Lopes-Virella M, Caulder S, Pittman C, Patel N, Lee K, Nutaitis M, Fernandes J, Hermayer K, Kwon S, Blevins A, Parker J, Colwell J, Lee D, Soule J, Lindsey P, Bracey M, Farr A, Elsing S, Thompson T, Selby J, Lyons T, Yacoub-Wasef S, Szpiech M, Wood D, Mayfield R, Molitch M, Schaefer B, Jampol L, Lyon A, Gill M, Strugula Z, Kaminski L, Mirza R, Simjanoski E, Ryan D, Johnson C, Wallia A, Ajroud-Driss S, Astelford P, Leloudes N, Degillio A, Kolterman O, Lorenzi G, Goldbaum M, Jones K, Prince M, Swenson M, Grant I, Reed R, Lyon R, Giotta M, Clark T, Friedenberg G, Sivitz WI, Vittetoe B, Kramer J, Bayless M, Zeitler R, Schrott H, Olson N, Snetselaar L, Hoffman R, MacIndoe J, Weingeist T, Fountain C, Counts D, Johnsonbaugh S, Patronas M, Carney M, Salemi P, Liss R, Hebdon M, Donner T, Gordon J, Hemady R, Kowarski A, Ostrowski D, Steidl S, Jones B, Herman WH, Martin CL, Pop-Busui R, Greene DA, Stevens MJ, Burkhart N, Sandford T, Floyd J, Bantle J, Wimmergren N, Terry J, Koozekanani D, Montezuma S, Rogness B, Mech M, Strand T, Olson J, McKenzie L, Kwong C, Goetz F, Warhol R, Hainsworth D, Goldstein D, Hitt S, Giangiacomo J, Schade DS, Canady JL, Burge MR, Das A, Avery RB, Ketai LH, Chapin JE, Schluter ML, Rich J, Johannes C, Hornbeck D, Schutta M, Bourne PA, Brucker A, Braunstein S, Schwartz S, Maschak-Carey BJ, Baker L, Orchard T, Cimino L, Songer T, Doft B, Olson S, Becker D, Rubinstein D, Bergren RL, Fruit J, Hyre R, Palmer C, Silvers N, Lobes L, Rath P, Conrad PW, Yalamanchi S, Wesche J, Bratkowksi M, Arslanian S, Rinkoff J, Warnicki J, Curtin D, Steinberg D, Vagstad G, Harris R, Steranchak L, Arch J, Kelly K, Ostrosaka P, Guiliani M, Good M, Williams T, Olsen K, Campbell A, Shipe C, Conwit R, Finegold D, Zaucha M, Drash A, Morrison A, Malone JI, Bernal ML, Pavan PR, Grove N, Tanaka EA, McMillan D, Vaccaro-Kish J, Babbione L, Solc H, DeClue TJ, Dagogo-Jack S, Wigley C, Ricks H, Kitabchi A, Chaum E, Murphy MB, Moser S, Meyer D, Iannacone A, Yoser S, Bryer-Ash M, Schussler S, Lambeth H, Raskin P, Strowig S, Basco M, Cercone S, Zinman B, Barnie A, Devenyi R, Mandelcorn M, Brent M, Rogers S, Gordon A, Bakshi N, Perkins B, Tuason L, Perdikaris F, Ehrlich R, Daneman D, Perlman K, Ferguson S, Palmer J, Fahlstrom R, de Boer IH, Kinyoun J, Van Ottingham L, Catton S, Ginsberg J, Dupre J, McDonald C, Harth J, Driscoll M, Sheidow T, Mahon J, Canny C, Nicolle D, Colby P, Hramiak I, Rodger NW, Jenner M, Smith T, Brown W, May M, Hagan J, Agarwal A, Adkins T, Lorenz R, Feman S, Survant L, White NH, Levandoski L, Grand G, Thomas M, Joseph D, Blinder K, Shah G, Burgess D, Boniuk I, Santiago J, Tamborlane W, Gatcomb P, Stoessel K, Ramos P, Fong K, Ossorio P, Ahern J, Gubitosi-Klug R, Beck C, Genuth S, Quin J, Gaston P, Palmert M, Trail R, Dahms W, Lachin J, Cleary P, Backlund J, Bebu I, Braffett B, Diminick L, Gao X, Hsu W, Klumpp K, McGee P, Sun W, Villavicencio S, Anderson K, Dews L, Younes N, Rutledge B, Chan K, Rosenberg D, Petty B, Determan A, Kenny D, Williams C, Cowie C, Siebert C, Steffes M, Arends V, Bucksa J, Nowicki M, Chavers B, O'Leary D, Polak J, Harrington A, Funk L, Crow R, Gloeb B, Thomas S, O'Donnell C, Soliman E, Zhang ZM, Campbell C, Keasler L, Hensley S, Prineas R, Feldman EL, Albers JW, Low P, Sommer C, Nickander K, Speigelberg T, Pfiefer M, Schumer M, Moran M, Farquhar J, Ryan C, Sandstrom D, Williams T, Geckle M, Cupelli E, Thoma F, Burzuk B, Woodfill T, Danis R, Blodi B, Lawrence D, Wabers H, Gangaputra S, Neill S, Burger M, Dingledine J, Gama V, Sussman R, Davis M, Hubbard L, Budoff M, Darabian S, Rezaeian P, Wong N, Fox M, Oudiz R, Kim L, Detrano R, Cruickshanks K, Dalton D, Bainbridge K, Lima J, Bluemke D, Turkbey E, van der Geest RJ, Liu C, Malayeri A, Jain A, Miao C, Chahal H, Jarboe R, Nathan DM, Monnier V, Sell D, Strauch C, Hazen S, Pratt A, Tang W, Brunzell J, Purnell J, Natarajan R, Miao F, Zhang L, Chen Z, Paterson A, Boright A, Bull S, Sun L, Scherer S, Lopes-Virella M, Lyons TJ, Jenkins A, Klein R, Virella G, Jaffa A, Carter R, Stoner J, Garvey WT, Lackland D, Brabham M, McGee D, Zheng D, Mayfield R, Maynard J, Wessells H, Sarma A, Jacobson A, Dunn R, Holt S, Hotaling J, Kim C, Clemens Q, Brown J, McVary K.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) showed a beneficial effect of 6.5 years of intensive glycemic control on retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

METHODS:

Between 1983 and 1989, a total of 1441 patients with type 1 diabetes in the DCCT were randomly assigned to receive either intensive diabetes therapy or conventional therapy aimed at preventing hyperglycemic symptoms. They were treated and followed until 1993. Subsequently, 1375 of these patients were followed in the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. The self-reported history of ocular surgical procedures was obtained annually. We evaluated the effect of intensive therapy as compared with conventional therapy on the incidence and cost of ocular surgery during these two studies.

RESULTS:

Over a median follow-up of 23 years, 130 ocular operations were performed in 63 of 711 patients assigned to intensive therapy (8.9%) and 189 ocular operations in 98 of 730 patients assigned to conventional therapy (13.4%) (P<0.001). After adjustment for DCCT baseline factors, intensive therapy was associated with a reduction in the risk of any diabetes-related ocular surgery by 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 63; P<0.001) and a reduction in the risk of all such ocular procedures by 37% (95% CI, 12 to 55; P=0.01). Forty-two patients who received intensive therapy and 61 who received conventional therapy underwent cataract extraction (adjusted risk reduction with intensive therapy, 48%; 95% CI, 23 to 65; P=0.002); 29 patients who received intensive therapy and 50 who received conventional therapy underwent vitrectomy, retinal-detachment surgery, or both (adjusted risk reduction, 45%; 95% CI, 12 to 66; P=0.01). The costs of surgery were 32% lower in the intensive-therapy group. The beneficial effects of intensive therapy were fully attenuated after adjustment for mean glycated hemoglobin levels over the entire follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes was associated with a substantial reduction in the long-term risk of ocular surgery. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; DCCT/EDIC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00360893 and NCT00360815.).

PMID:
25923552
PMCID:
PMC4465212
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1409463
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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