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Clin Infect Dis. 2015 May 15;60 Suppl 2:S66-71. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ140.

Current Trends in the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Clostridium difficile Infection.

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Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Center of Innovation for Complex Chronic Healthcare, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines Department of Preventive Medicine and Center for Healthcare Studies, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin.


Clostridium difficile is the most frequently identified cause of nosocomial diarrhea and has been associated with epidemics of diarrhea in hospitals and long-term care facilities. The continued increase in C. difficile infection (CDI) suggests that it has surpassed other pathogens in causing healthcare-associated infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently identified CDI as an "urgent threat" in its recent report on antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, highlighting the need for urgent and aggressive action to prevent this infection. The impact of antibiotics as a risk factor for new-onset CDI is well established; however, recognizing classes of antibiotics with the highest risks and reducing unnecessary antibiotic use are important strategies for prevention of CDI and subsequent recurrence. In addition, the recognition of the community as an important setting for onset of CDI presents a challenge and is an area for future research.


Clostridium difficile; costs; epidemiology

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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