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Biogerontology. 2016 Feb;17(1):7-19. doi: 10.1007/s10522-015-9578-8. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

Inflammaging decreases adaptive and innate immune responses in mice and humans.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016960 (R-138), Miami, FL, 33101, USA. dfrasca@med.miami.edu.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016960 (R-138), Miami, FL, 33101, USA.

Abstract

Both the innate and adaptive immune systems decline with age, causing greater susceptibility to infectious diseases and reduced responses to vaccination. Diseases are more severe in elderly than in young individuals and have a greater impact on health outcomes such as morbidity, disability and mortality. Aging is characterized by increased low-grade chronic inflammation, called "inflammaging", measured by circulating levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, as well as by latent infections with viruses such as cytomegalovirus. Inflammaging has received considerable attention because it proposes a link between changes in immune cells and a number of diseases and syndromes typical of old age. In this review we aim at summarizing the current knowledge on pathways contributing to inflammaging, on immune responses down-regulated by inflammation and mechanisms proposed. The defects in the immune response of elderly individuals presented in this review should help to discover avenues for effective intervention to promote healthy aging.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Immunity; Inflammaging; Vaccine responses

PMID:
25921609
PMCID:
PMC4626429
DOI:
10.1007/s10522-015-9578-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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