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J Lipid Res. 2015 Jun;56(6):1191-205. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M059170. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

Botanical oils enriched in n-6 and n-3 FADS2 products are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and fatty liver.

Author information

1
Departments of Internal Medicine-Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 Physiology/Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.
2
Departments of Internal Medicine-Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.
3
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045.
4
Departments of Internal Medicine-Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.

Abstract

Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in 18:4 n-3, the immediate product of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) desaturation of 18:3 n-3, is as atheroprotective as fish oil (FO). The objective of this study was to determine whether botanical oils enriched in the FADS2 products 18:3 n-6 versus 18:4 n-3 are equally atheroprotective. LDL receptor KO mice were fed one of four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) plus 10% calories as: 1) PO; 2) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched); 3) EO (18:4 n-3 enriched); or 4) FO for 16 weeks. Mice fed BO, EO, and FO versus PO had significantly lower plasma total and VLDL cholesterol concentrations; hepatic neutral lipid content and inflammation, aortic CE content, aortic root intimal area and macrophage content; and peritoneal macrophage inflammation, CE content, and ex vivo chemotaxis. Atheromas lacked oxidized CEs despite abundant generation of macrophage 12/15 lipooxygenase-derived metabolites. We conclude that botanical oils enriched in 18:3 n-6 and 18:4 n-3 PUFAs beyond the rate-limiting FADS2 enzyme are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and hepatosteatosis compared with saturated/monounsaturated fat due to cellular enrichment of ≥20 PUFAs, reduced plasma VLDL, and attenuated macrophage inflammation.

KEYWORDS:

fatty acid desaturase 2; fatty acid/metabolism; inflammation; lipoproteins/metabolism; macrophages/monocytes; mass spectrometry; very low density lipoprotein

PMID:
25921305
PMCID:
PMC4442876
DOI:
10.1194/jlr.M059170
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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