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J Pediatr. 2015 May;166(5):1187-1192.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.02.014.

Late-onset group B streptococcal meningitis has cerebrovascular complications.

Author information

1
Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Neonatology, Leverkusen Children's Hospital, Leverkusen, Germany. Electronic address: daniel.tibussek@gmx.net.
2
Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3
Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
5
Division of Microbiology, Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
6
Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
7
Department of Neonatology, Leverkusen Children's Hospital, Leverkusen, Germany.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe cerebrovascular diseases related to late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) meningitis.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective case series. Patients treated for cerebrovascular complication of late-onset GBS meningitis over 5 years were identified through neuroradiology and microbiology databases. Patient charts were reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, laboratory findings, including GBS subtype, treatment, clinical course, and outcome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was reviewed with special emphasis on stroke pattern and cerebrovascular findings.

RESULTS:

Fourteen patients were identified. In 6 out of 9 patients serotype III was causative and positive for surface protein hvgA in 5. Ten had arterial ischemic stroke accompanied by a cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in 2 patients. Evidence of cerebral vasculopathy was found in 4 cases. The stroke pattern was variable with cortical, multifocal ischemia, basal ganglia involvement, or had a clear territorial arterial infarction. Ten patients were treated with anticoagulation. No significant bleeding complications, and no recurrent strokes occurred. Twelve patients had clinical and/or subclinical seizures. Developmental outcome was good in 8 cases. Six patients had moderate to severe developmental delay. Central nervous system complications included subdural empyema, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, microcephaly, and hemiplegia.

CONCLUSIONS:

Late-onset GBS meningitis can be complicated by severe cerebrovascular disease, including arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. These complications may be underestimated. We recommend a low threshold for cerebral imaging in these cases. Future studies on the exact incidence, the role of GBS subtypes, and on safety and efficiency of preventive anticoagulation therapy are warranted.

PMID:
25919727
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.02.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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