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Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 28;6:6342. doi: 10.1038/ncomms7342.

Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
2
Department of Surgery and Cancer and Centre for Digestive and Gut Health, Institution of Global Health Innovation, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
3
1] Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6703 HB, The Netherlands [2] Department of Veterinary Bioscience, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
4
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA.
5
Division of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
6
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
7
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6703 HB, The Netherlands.
8
Division of Endocrinology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
9
Division of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
10
1] Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6703 HB, The Netherlands [2] Department of Veterinary Bioscience, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland [3] RPU Immunolbiology, Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland.

Abstract

Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle-aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fibre in this association. We performed 2-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fibre, low-fat African-style diet and rural Africans a high-fat, low-fibre western-style diet, under close supervision. In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis, and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans.

Comment in

PMID:
25919227
PMCID:
PMC4415091
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms7342
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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