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PLoS Genet. 2015 Apr 28;11(4):e1005199. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005199. eCollection 2015 Apr.

Beyond glycolysis: GAPDHs are multi-functional enzymes involved in regulation of ROS, autophagy, and plant immune responses.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
3
Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Abstract

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme in energy metabolism with diverse cellular regulatory roles in vertebrates, but few reports have investigated the importance of plant GAPDH isoforms outside of their role in glycolysis. While animals possess one GAPDH isoform, plants possess multiple isoforms. In this study, cell biological and genetic approaches were used to investigate the role of GAPDHs during plant immune responses. Individual Arabidopsis GAPDH knockouts (KO lines) exhibited enhanced disease resistance phenotypes upon inoculation with the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. KO lines exhibited accelerated programmed cell death and increased electrolyte leakage in response to effector triggered immunity. Furthermore, KO lines displayed increased basal ROS accumulation as visualized using the fluorescent probe H2DCFDA. The gapa1-2 and gapc1 KOs exhibited constitutive autophagy phenotypes in the absence of nutrient starvation. Due to the high sequence conservation between vertebrate and plant cytosolic GAPDH, our experiments focused on cytosolic GAPC1 cellular dynamics using a complemented GAPC1-GFP line. Confocal imaging coupled with an endocytic membrane marker (FM4-64) and endosomal trafficking inhibitors (BFA, Wortmannin) demonstrated cytosolic GAPC1 is localized to the plasma membrane and the endomembrane system, in addition to the cytosol and nucleus. After perception of bacterial flagellin, GAPC1 dynamically responded with a significant increase in size of fluorescent puncta and enhanced nuclear accumulation. Taken together, these results indicate that plant GAPDHs can affect multiple aspects of plant immunity in diverse sub-cellular compartments.

PMID:
25918875
PMCID:
PMC4412566
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1005199
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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